ANTIQUE LYCIA ROAD
The Peninsula, which is now called the Teke Peninsula and extends to the Mediterranean Sea between Antalya and the Gulf of Fethiye, is called Lycia in the ancient geography.
The southern boundary of the region is defined by the Mediterranean; The eastern, western and northern borders have changed according to periods during the historical process. According to ancient writers; The Beydağları, Akdağ silsiles and their extension in the northwest direction starting from the western part of Antalya and extending to the southwest constitute the northern boundary of Lycia. Homer describes the Trojan battles in the famous Iliad epic, where the Lycian people were beside the Trojans against Akhalara under the leadership of Glaukos and Sarpedon. Lycia entered the Persian administration with the help of King Harpagos of Persia from 455 BC and joined the ship with 50 vessels built by King Xerxes for zapta in 480. The Persian invasion ended with Alexander the Great in Macedonia crossing the Istanbul Bosphorus to Anatolia in 334 BC and the Persians in BC 333 BC defeated the Battle of Granikos.
Lycia After the death of Alexander the Great in 309 BC from the generals in Egypt to the ruling Ptolemaios'ın about 100 years of domination of the Lycian language is forgotten and left the place is known to Greek.
The region was occupied by King of Syria III. It's in the management of Antiochus. Lycia from Rome to BC In 167 he received his freedom. In this period, it is known from the inscriptions and coins that 23 cities, including the capital Xanthos, formed the "Lycian Union" and the money was printed on behalf of the union. Strabon states that the six largest cities of the Lycian League are Xanthos, Patara, Pınara, Olympos, Myra and Tlos.
The Lycian Way Guide Memorial, the map of the Lycian geography where the settlements are written with the connected routes and distance measures, is the oldest and only highway map of the world known.
The union did not lose its function during the Roman Empire period, but abundance and prosperity reached its highest level in this period. The city population is around 5,000 and the population of the region is around 200,000. The borders expanded to include the Kaunos (Dalyan) in the north-east. 5th century. 34 cities were counted to the Council of Lycia. The area between Demre and Kas is the most densely populated part of Lycia. Almost 30 residential areas per km2 are falling.
Lycian people's encounter with Christianity In the third missionary journey of 53-57 years, It dates back to Paulus's visit to Myra and Patara. Methodius of Olympos was the first known bishop of Lykia and was executed in Patara in 312 BC. The Byzantine period in the 4th and 7th centuries is the period when Christianity was settled in the area and many churches were built.
One of the important changes that began with Byzantium is the beginning of monastic settlements especially in the mountainous parts of Demre. Monasteries are an important center of power to influence economic and public life. The monastic life in Lycia has been reduced to the 5th century. 5.-6. The large number of churches in the region during the centuries shows that the population of the region is quite high in this period.
A large part of the Lycian coast is made up of rocks. This topography has allowed some places for the formation of the harbor. Strabon says that the Lycian coast is rugged and difficult to cross but that its harbors are extremely well equipped.
The maritime trade seen in the region since the Bronze Age has been diversified in the following periods and continued until the Roman and Byzantine Periods. Purple paint, cedar wood, olive oil, wine, sponge are important local produce goods of the Lycian region. According to ancient sources Antiphellos and its surroundings are very good quality and soft sponge. Also, the quality of the Lycian Zone cedars used for ship building is very high.
Lycian ports east to west Idyros, Phaselis, Korykos, Olympos, Posidarisus, Melanippe, Gagai, Phoinikos, Andriake, Simena, Teimussa, Aperlai, Antiphellos, Kalamaki, Phoinike, Patara, Pydnai, Arymnessos / Perdikiai, Kalabantia, Karmylessos, Telmessos, Kriya , Lissa and Lydai. From these ports, both the location and the political and economic power, Andriake and Patara, who host international trade, are separated from each other.
The region is the most interesting region of Anatolia with its local traditions and especially its own grave architectures, and the cities are usually located on the coast and in the valleys of Xanthos and Arykandos, which are considered the heart of the region. Some of the inscriptions belonging to the Lycian language, known for their own language and alphabets, have been translated into contemporary tongues in recent years, most of which belong to the tomb inscriptions.
The Lycian region is composed of large, medium and small sized cities, port cities, military and semi-farm and tower settlements. Most of the visible remains of the area belong to the Roman and Byzantine eras. In the classical settlements concentrated in the mountains, olive oil and wine workshops, agriculture terraces are definitely found. These rural settlements, which contain the vast majority of the population, feed themselves and the big cities they depend on.
The houses in the Lycian region are generally divided into four groups. First group; Houses with side by side on the hill slopes, with separate entrances of each adjacent space, Second group; There are independent single and double rooms in rural areas within the residential area. Both groups of houses are mostly two storeys, and the public areas are close together. Third group; Dwellings with 2-4 mega, scattered in agricultural areas, generally single storey, some courtyards, with their own cistern and work, Fourth group; In the middle of a courtyard around the rooms, made in rural areas, generally belonging to the rich.
The natural catastrophes that hit the region have deeply affected the epidemic cities, the lives in the cities. The most important of these are the earthquakes that took place in 141, 240, 385 and 529 years and plague outbreaks in 542 and 1346-1347. The settlements in the inner regions became important due to the destruction in the coastal areas.
Also, Emperor II. In Constance 655, he fought a battle against the Arabs in the Phonics' coast with his navy. II. Constance was rescued by the sacrifice of a young soldier who was going through the corruption. After the war in Phonix, Arab navy began to circulate freely in the Mediterranean coasts.
In 802 Lycia and Karya region was captured by the Abbasids. In the 10th century, Lycia and the entire Mediterranean were dominated by Byzantium. After 1155 Seljuk II. With the defeat of the Byzantine armies of Kilic Arslan, Likya Turkmenlere opened. After 1204, all of the Lycian Turks passed away.